David Reynolds examines how the war haunted the generation who lived through it.
David Reynolds argues that the war made national identity a stark either-or issue; he traces the recurrent struggle between nationalist uprisings and empire-building by Hitler, Stalin and latterly, the European Union in the century since 1914.
The intriguing paradox of the Great War, how it was not caused by profound political or ideological divisions but it did create them in its wake; how the conflict made politics red hot, giving birth to an age of turbulent mass democracy.
Attitudes about the Great War have evolved since its aftermath of 1918.
History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism. Waldemar Januszczak disagrees. In this four-part series he argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement.